Whenever we attempt to determine whether there is life as we
know it on Mars or other planets, scientists first seek to
establish whether or not water is present. Why? Because life
on earth totally depends on water.
High percentage of living things, both plant and animal are
found in water. All life on earth is thought to have arisen
from water. The bodies of all living organisms are composed
largely of water. About 70 to 90 percent of all organic
matter is water.
The chemical reactions in all plants and animals that
support life take place in a water medium.
Water not only provides the medium to make these life
sustaining reactions possible, but water itself is often an
important reactant or product of these reactions. In short,
the chemistry of life is water chemistry.
Water is a universal, superb solvent due to the marked
polarity of the water molecule and its tendency to form
hydrogen bonds with other molecules. One water molecule,
expressed with the chemical symbol H2O,
consists of 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom.
alone, the hydrogen atom contains one positive proton at its
core with one negative electron revolving around it in a
three-dimensional shell. Oxygen, on the other hand, contains
8 protons in its nucleus with 8 electrons revolving around
it. This is often shown in chemical notation as the letter O
surrounded by eight dots representing 4 sets of paired
The single hydrogen electron and the 8 electrons of oxygen
are the key to the chemistry of life because this is where
hydrogen and oxygen atoms combine to form a water molecule,
or split to form ions.
Hydrogen tends to ionize by losing its single electron and
form single H+ ions, which are simply isolated protons since
the hydrogen atom contains no neutrons. A hydrogen bond
occurs when the electron of a single hydrogen atom is shared
with another electronegative atom such as oxygen that lacks
a water molecule, two hydrogen atoms are covalently bonded
to the oxygen atom. But because the oxygen atom is larger
than the hydrogen's, its attraction for the hydrogen's
electrons is correspondingly greater so the electrons are
drawn closer into the shell of the larger oxygen atom and
away from the hydrogen shells. This means that although the
water molecule as a whole is stable, the greater mass of the
oxygen nucleus tends to draw in all the electrons in the
molecule including the shared hydrogen electrons giving the
oxygen portion of the molecule a slight electronegative
shells of the hydrogen atoms, because their electrons are
closer to the oxygen, take on a small electropositive
charge. This means water molecules have a tendency to form
weak bonds with water molecules because the oxygen end of
the molecule is negative and the hydrogen ends are positive.
hydrogen atom, while remaining covalently bonded to the
oxygen of its own molecule, can form a weak bond with the
oxygen of another molecule. Similarly, the oxygen end of a
molecule can form a weak attachment with the hydrogen ends
of other molecules. Because water molecules have this
polarity, water is a continuous chemical entity.
These weak bonds play a crucial role in stabilizing the
shape of many of the large molecules found in living matter.
Because these bonds are weak, they are readily broken and
re-formed during normal physiological reactions. The
disassembly and re-arrangement of such weak bonds is in
essence the chemistry of life.
illustrate water's ability to break down other substances,
consider the simple example of putting a small amount of
table salt in a glass of tap water. With dry salt (NaCl) the
attraction between the electropositive sodium (Na+) and
electronegative chlorine (Cl-) atoms of salt is very strong
until it is placed in water. After salt is placed in water,
the attraction of the electronegative oxygen of the water
molecule for the positively charged sodium ions, and the
similar attraction of the electropositive hydrogen ends of
the water molecule for the negatively charged chloride ions,
are greater than the mutual attraction between the
outnumbered Na+ and Cl- ions. In water the ionic bonds of
the sodium chloride molecule are broken easily because of
the competitive action of the numerous water molecules.
we can see from this simple example, even the delicate
configuration of individual water molecules enables them to
break relatively stronger bonds by converging on them. This
is why we call water the universal solvent. It is a natural
solution that breaks the bonds of larger, more complex
molecules. This is the chemistry of life on earth, in water
and on land.
Basically, reduction means the addition of an electron (e-),
and its converse, oxidation means the removal of an
electron. The addition of an electron, reduction, stores
energy in the reduced compound. The removal of an electron,
oxidation, liberates energy from the oxidized compound.
Whenever one substance is reduced, another is oxidized.
clarify these terms, consider any two molecules, A and B,
When molecules A and B come into contact, here is what
grabs an electron from molecule A.
Molecule A has been oxidized because it has lost an
The net charge of B has been reduced because it has gained a
negative electron (e-).
biological systems, removal or addition of an electron
constitutes the most frequent mechanism of
oxidation-reduction reactions. These oxidation-reduction
reactions are frequently called redox reactions.
acid is a substance that increases the concentration of
hydrogen ions (H+) in water. A base is a substance that
decreases the concentration of hydrogen ions, in other
words, increasing the concentration of hydroxide ions OH-.
The degree of acidity or alkalinity of a solution is
measured in terms of a value known as pH, which is the
negative logarithm of the concentration of hydrogen ions>
the pH scale, which ranges from 0 on the acidic end to 14 on
the alkaline end, a solution is neutral if its pH is 7. At
pH 7, water contains equal concentrations of H+ and OH-
ions. Substances with a pH less than 7 are acidic because
they contain a higher concentration of H+ ions. Substances
with a pH higher than 7 are alkaline because they contain a
higher concentration of OH- than H+. The pH scale is a log
scale so a change of one pH unit means a tenfold change in
the concentration of hydrogen ions.
Living things are extremely sensitive to pH and function
best (with certain exceptions, such as certain portions of
the digestive tract) when solutions are nearly neutral. Most
interior living matter (excluding the cell nucleus) has a pH
of about 6.8.
Blood plasma and other fluids that surround the cells in the
body have a pH of 7.2 to 7.3. Numerous special mechanisms
aid in stabilizing these fluids so that cells will not be
subject to appreciable fluctuations in pH. Substances which
serve as mechanisms to stabilize pH are called buffers.
Buffers have the capacity to bond ions and remove them from
solution whenever their concentration begins to rise.
Conversely, buffers can release ions whenever their
concentration begins to fall. Buffers thus help to minimize
the fluctuations in pH. This is an important function
because many biochemical reactions normally occurring in
living organisms either release or use up ions.
NOTE: Dr. Hayashi is a Heart Specialist and Director of the
Water Institute of Japan.
Oxygen is essential to survival. It is relatively stable in
the air, but when too much is absorbed into the body it can
become active and unstable and has a tendency to attach
itself to any biological molecule, including molecules of
healthy cells. The chemical activity of these free radicals
is due to one or more pairs of unpaired electrons.
About 2% of the oxygen we normally breathe becomes active
oxygen, and this amount increases to approximately 20% with
free radicals with unpaired electrons are unstable and have
a high oxidation potential, which means they are capable of
stealing electrons from other cells. This chemical mechanism
is very useful in disinfectants such as hydrogen peroxide
and ozone which can be used to sterilize wounds or medical
instruments. Inside the body these free radicals are of
great benefit due to their ability to attack and eliminate
bacteria, viruses and other waste products.
Active Oxygen in the body
Problems arise, however, when too many of these free
radicals are turned loose in the body where they can also
damage normal tissue.
Putrefaction sets in when microbes in the air invade the
proteins, peptides, and amino acids of eggs, fish and meat.
The result is an array of unpleasant substances such as>
These substances are also produced naturally in the
digestive tract when we digest food, resulting in the
unpleasant odor evidenced in feces. Putrefaction of spoiled
food is caused by microbes in the air; this natural process
is duplicated in the digestive tract by intestinal microbes.
All these waste products of digestion are pathogenic, that
is, they can cause disease in the body.
Hydrogen sulfide and ammonia are tissue toxins that can
damage the liver. Histamines contribute to allergic
disorders such as atopic dermatitis, urticaria (hives) and
asthma. Indoles and phenols are considered carcinogenic.
Because waste products such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia,
histamines, phenols and indoles are toxic, the body's
defense mechanisms try to eliminate them by releasing
neutrophils (a type of leukocyte, or white corpuscle). These
neutrophils produce active oxygen, oddball oxygen molecules
that are capable of scavenging disintegrating tissues by
gathering electrons from the molecules of toxic cells.
Problems arise, however, when too many of these active
oxygen molecules, or free radicals, are produced in the
body. They are extremely reactive and can also attach
themselves to normal, healthy cells and damage them
genetically. These active oxygen radicals steal electrons
from normal, healthy biological molecules. This electron
theft by active oxygen oxidizes tissue and can cause
Because active oxygen can damage normal tissue, it is
essential to scavenge this active oxygen from the body
before it can cause disintegration of healthy tissue. If we
can find an effective method to block the oxidation of
healthy tissue by active oxygen, then we can attempt to
One way to protect healthy tissue from the ravages of
oxidation caused by active oxygen is to provide free
electrons to active oxygen radicals, thus neutralizing their
high oxidation potential and preventing them from reacting
with healthy tissue.
Research on the link between diet and cancer is far from
complete, but some evidence indicates that what we eat may
affect our susceptibility to cancer. Some foods seem to help
defend against cancer, others appear to promote it.
Much of the damage caused by carcinogenic substances in food
may come about because of an oxidation reaction in the cell.
In this process, an oddball oxygen molecule may damage the
genetic code of the cell. Some researchers believe that
substances that prevent oxidation -- called ANTIOXIDANTS --
can block the damage. This leads naturally to the theory
that the intake of natural antioxidants could be an
important aspect of the body's defense against cancer.
Substances that some believe inhibit cancer include vitamin
C, vitamin E, beta-carotene, selenium, and gluthione (an
amino acid). These substances are reducing agents. They
supply electrons to free radicals and block the interaction
of the free radical with normal tissue.
we mentioned earlier, the presence of toxic waste products
such as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles,
phenols and scatoles impart an offensive odor to human
feces. In the medical profession, it is well known that
patients suffering from hepatitis and cirrhosis pass
particularly odoriferous stools.
Excessively offensive stools caused by the presence of
toxins are indicators of certain diseases, and the body
responds to the presence of these toxins by producing
neutrophil leukocytes to release active oxygen in an attempt
to neutralize the damage to organs that can be caused by
such waste products. But when an excess amount of such
active oxygen is produced, it can damage healthy cells as
well as neutralize toxins. This leads us to the conclusion
that we can minimize the harmful effect of these active
oxygen radicals by reducing them with an ample supply of
There is no substitute for a healthy balanced diet,
especially rich in antioxidant materials such as vitamin C,
vitamin E, beta-carotene, and other foods that are good for
us. However, these substances are not the best source of
free electrons that can block the oxidation of healthy
tissue by active oxygen.
Water treated by electrolysis to increase its reduction
potential is the best solution to the problem of providing a
safe source of free electrons to block the oxidation of
normal tissue by free oxygen radicals. We believe that
reduced water, water with an excess of free electrons to
donate to active oxygen, is the best solution because>
The reduction potential of water can be dramatically
increased over other antioxidants in food or vitamin
The molecule weight of reduced water is low, making it fast
acting and able to reach all tissues of the body in a very
Ionized water is the product of mild electrolysis which
takes place in the ionized water unit. The production of
ionized water, its properties, and how it works in the human
body are described in the next section. Ionized water is
treated tap water that has not only been filtered, but has
also been reformed in that it provides reduced water with a
large mass of electrons that can be donated to active oxygen
in the body to block the oxidation of normal cells.
Normal tap water, for example, with a pH of 7 is
approximately neutral on the pH scale of 0 to 14. When
measured with an ORP (oxidation potential) meter its redox
potential is approximately +400 to +500 mV. Because it has a
positive redox potential, it is apt to acquire electrons and
oxidize other molecules. Reduced Ionized Water, on the other
hand, has a negative redox potential of approximately -250
to -350 mV. This means it has a large mass of electrons
ready to donate to electron-thieving active oxygen.
Before discussing the properties of Ionized Water further,
let's take a look at what happens inside an Ionized Water
The Ionized Water unit, slightly taller and thicker than a
large dictionary on end, is an electrical appliance
connected to your kitchen water supply to perform
electrolysis on tap water before you drink it or use it in
the kitchen for cooking or cleaning.
special attachment re-directs tap water out of the faucet
through a plastic hose into the Ionized Water unit. Inside
the Ionized Water unit, the water is first filtered through
activated charcoal. Next, the filtered water passes into an
electrolysis chamber equipped with a platinum-coated
titanium electrode where electrolysis takes place.
Cations, positive ions, gather at the negative electrodes to
create cathodic water (reduced water). Anions, negatively
charged ions, gather at the positive electrode to make
anodic water (oxidized water).
Through electrolysis, reduced water not only gains an
excess amount of electrons (e-), but the cluster of H2O
seem to be reduced in size from about 10 to 13 molecules per
cluster to 5 to 6 molecules per cluster.
The reduced water comes out of the faucet, and the oxidized
water comes out of a separate hose leading into the sink.
You can use the reduced water for drinking or cooking. The
oxidation potential of the oxidized water makes it a good
sterilizing agent, ideal for washing hands, cleaning food or
kitchen utensils, and treating minor wounds.
After electrolysis of the water inside the Ionized Water
unit, reduced water comes out of the cathodic side and
oxidized water comes out of the anodic side. Compare these
measurements of these three types of water: tap water before
electrolysis, the reduced water, and the oxidized water.
Traditionally we have judged the properties of water from
the standpoint of pH, in other words whether water is acidic
or alkaline. According to Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo PhD., the
inventor of the Ionized Water unit, "In my opinion, redox
potential is more important than pH. The importance of pH is
over emphasized. For example, the average pH of blood is 7.4
and acidosis or alkalosis are defined according to deviation
within the range of 7.4 +- 0.005. But nothing has been
discussed about ORP, or oxidation-reduction potential."
The pH of tap water is about pH 7, or neutral. When tap
water is electrolyzed into Ionized Water, its reduced water
has a pH of about 9 and the oxidized water a pH of about 4.
Even if you make alkaline water of pH 9 by adding sodium
hydroxide or make acidic water of pH 3 by adding hydrogen
chloride, you will find very little change in the ORP values
of the two waters. On the other hand, when you divide tap
water with electrolysis you can see the ORP fluctuate by as
much as +- 1,000 mV. By electrolysis we can obtain reduced
water with negative potential that is good for the body.
When taken internally, the reduced Ionized Water with its
redox potential of -250 to -350 mV readily donates its
electrons to oddball oxygen radicals and blocks the
interaction of the active oxygen with normal molecules.
biological molecule (BM) remains intact and undamaged.
Undamaged biological molecules are less susceptible to
infection and disease. Ionized Water gives up an extra
electron and reduces the active oxygen (AO), thus rendering
it harmless. The AO is reduced without damaging surrounding
biological molecules. Substances which have the ability to
counteract active oxygen by supplying electrons are called
scavengers. Reduced water, therefore, can be called
When taken internally, the effects of reduced water are
immediate. Ionized Water inhibits excessive fermentation in
the digestive tract by reducing indirectly metabolites such
as hydrogen sulfide, ammonia, histamines, indoles, phenols
and scatoles, resulting in a cleaner stool within days after
reduced water is taken on a regular basis. In 1965, the
Ministry of Welfare of Japan announced that reduced water
obtained from electrolysis can prevent abnormal fermentation
of intestinal microbes.
Oxidized water with its redox potential of +700 to +800 mV
is an oxidizing agent that can withdraw electrons from
bacteria and kill them. The oxidized water from the Ionized
Water unit can be used to clean hands, kitchen utensils,
fresh vegetables and fruits, and to sterilize cutting boards
and minor wounds. Tests have shown that oxidized water can
be used effectively to treat athlete's foot, minor burns,
insect bites, scratches, and so on.
Dr. Yoshiaki Matsuo, Vice Director of the Water Institute of
Japan, has developed another apparatus capable of producing
hyperoxidized water with a redox potential of +1,050 mV or
more, and a pH lower than 2.7. Tests have shown that this
hyper oxidized water can quickly destroy MRSA (Methecillin
Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus).
Although hyperoxidized water is a powerful sterilizing
agent, it won't harm the skin. In fact, it can be used to
heal. Hyperoxidized water has proven effective in Japanese
hospitals in the treatment of bedsores and operative wounds
with complicated infections.
But perhaps the most exciting future application of
hyperoxidized water is in the field of agriculture where it
has been used effectively on plants to kill fungi and other
plant diseases. Hyperoxidized water is non-toxic, so
agricultural workers can apply it without wearing special
protective equipment because there is no danger of skin or
respiratory damage. An added benefit of using hyperoxidized
water to spray plants is that there is no danger to the
environment caused by the accumulation of toxic chemicals in
Today we read much about correct dieting principles and
paying attention to what we eat in order to stay healthy.
This is a sensible practice, but it is surprising that many
of us don't realize that the bulk of what eat is composed of
water. Vegetables and fruits are 90% water; fish and meat
are about 70% water as well.
Even advocates of the importance of vitamin C in diet
staples have to admit that its potency, namely, the redox
potential of this important vitamin, rapidly diminishes with
age and preparation for the dining table. Carbohydrates, the
main consistent of vegetables and fruit, has a molecular
weight of 180 whereas water has a much lower molecular
weight of 18.
Ionized Water, with its low molecular weight and high
reduction potential, makes it a superior scavenging agent of
active oxygen. But electrolysis inside the Ionized Water
unit not only charges the reduced water with electrons, it
also reduces the size of reduced water molecule clusters.
NMR (Nuclear Magnetic Resonance) analysis reveals that tap
water and well water consists of clusters of 10 to 13 H2
molecules. Electrolysis of water in the Ionized Water unit
reduces these clusters to about half their normal size -- 5
to 6 water molecules per cluster.
the graph shows, the NMR signal that measures cluster size
by line width at half-amplitude shows 65 Hz for reduced
water and 133 Hz for tap water, revealing that the reduced
water clusters are approximately half the size of tap water
This is why Ionized Water is more readily absorbed by the
body than untreated tap water. Ionized Water quickly
permeates the body and blocks the oxidation of biological
molecules by donating its abundant electrons to active
oxygen, enabling biological molecules to replace themselves
naturally without damage caused by oxidation that can cause
According to Dr. Hidemitsu Hayashi, Director of the Water
Institute of Japan, "To eliminate the pollutants in a large
stream that is contaminated at its source, we must work on
the problems upstream at the headwaters -- the source of the
pollution -- not downstream where we can only try to treat
the evidence of damage caused by the pollution. Ionized
Water's contribution to preventive medicine is essentially
According to our model, we consider the digestive tract
upstream where we intake water and food. Although many
people today in developed countries are growing more
skeptical about what they eat, they tend to concentrate more
on what the food contains rather than the metabolized
products of foods in the digestive tract.
example, consider the typical balanced diet of meat and
vegetables. Meat protein is metabolized into amines while
nitrates from fertilizers used to grow vegetables metabolize
into nitrites in the digestive tract. These amines and
nitrites combine to form nitrosamine, a recognized
We've already discussed that odoriferous feces are evidence
of excessive fermentation in the digestive tract, so reduced
water performs a very important function upstream in the
digestive tract by reducing this excessive fermentation as
evidenced by cleaner stools within days of starting a steady
regimen of reduced water.
Downstream from the digestive tract, starting at the liver,
reduced water quickly enters the liver and other organs due
to, first, its lower molecular weight, and, secondly, the
size of its clusters. At tissue sites throughout the body,
reduced water with its safe, yet potent reduction potential
readily donates its passenger electrons freely to active
oxygen and neutralizes them so they cannot damage the
molecules of healthy cells. Normal cells are protected from
the electron thievery of active oxygen and allowed to grow,
mature, function and regenerate without interference from
rogue, oddball oxygen radicals which tend to steal the
electrons from the molecules of normal, healthy biological
are now in the midst of a water boom. In Japan and other
countries consumers are buying various kinds of bottled and
canned water even though water is one of our most abundant
vital resources. Research data reveals that mineral waters
have an ORP of +200 mV, slightly lower than the +400 mV
measured for ordinary tap water. We can say that at least
mineral water is marginally better than tap water from the
viewpoint of ORP. Compared to any processed water for sale,
however, Ionized Water with its reduction potential of -250
to -300 mV is beyond comparison due to its ability to
scavenge active oxygen radicals.
enclosed herein have not been evaluated by the Food and Drug
Administration, Canadian or Mexican health authorities . The
products mentioned on this site are not intended to diagnose,
treat, cure, or prevent any disease. Information and statements
made are for education purposes and are not intended to replace
the advice of your family doctor.